The International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (iLiNS) Project is a research collaboration that grew out of a shared commitment to accelerate progress in preventing malnutrition. We are conducting research projects in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Malawi. Previous work with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) in Ghana and Malawi indicated that such supplements could improve child growth and development in low-income populations. The iLiNS Project was designed to build on the previous work. We will evaluate the efficacy of new and less costly formulations, study the impact of providing LNS to infants and to pregnant and lactating women, and explore the economic dimensions of LNS used to prevent malnutrition.